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Free PDF of DIN EN ISO 8062-3:2008 - General dimensional and geometrical tolerances for castings


ISO 8062-3: A Guide to General Dimensional and Geometrical Tolerances for Castings




If you are involved in the design, manufacture, or purchase of castings, you may have heard of ISO 8062-3, a standard that specifies general dimensional and geometrical tolerances as well as machining allowance grades for castings using tolerances for indicated dimensions. But what exactly is ISO 8062-3 and how can it help you achieve more accurate and consistent castings? In this article, we will explain the scope, purpose, benefits, and application of ISO 8062-3, as well as the main changes from the previous edition. We will also provide some examples and recommendations for using ISO 8062-3 in different situations.




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What is ISO 8062-3 and why is it important?




The scope and purpose of ISO 8062-3




ISO 8062-3 is a part of the ISO 8062 series, which covers geometrical product specifications (GPS) for moulded parts. GPS is a system of standards that defines the concepts, principles, rules, and methods for specifying and verifying the dimensional and geometrical characteristics of products. GPS helps to ensure that products meet the requirements and expectations of customers and users in terms of functionality, quality, reliability, and safety.


ISO 8062-3 is applicable for tolerancing of dimensions and geometry of castings in all cast metals and their alloys produced by various casting manufacturing processes. Castings are products obtained by pouring molten metal into a mould cavity and allowing it to solidify. Casting is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of producing metal parts with complex shapes and sizes.


The purpose of ISO 8062-3 is to provide a system of tolerance grades and machining allowance grades for castings as delivered to the purchaser according to ISO/TS 8062-2. Tolerance grades are groups of tolerances that define the permissible deviations from nominal dimensions or geometry. Machining allowance grades are groups of allowances that define the minimum amount of material to be removed from the casting surface by machining operations. ISO/TS 8062-2 is a technical specification that defines the requirements for specifying moulded parts using model-based definition (MBD), which is a method of using 3D models without indicated dimensions as the basis for product definition.


The benefits of using ISO 8062-3 for castings




Using ISO 8062-3 for castings can bring several benefits for designers, manufacturers, purchasers, and users, such as:



  • Reducing ambiguity and misunderstanding in communication and documentation



  • Improving compatibility and interoperability between different parts and systems



  • Enhancing efficiency and productivity in design, manufacturing, inspection, and verification



  • Optimizing quality and performance of castings



  • Reducing costs and waste by minimizing rework, scrap, and non-conformity



The main changes from the previous edition of ISO 8062-3




ISO 8062-3 was first published in 2007 and revised in 2019. The main changes from the previous edition are:



  • The introduction of MBD as the preferred method for specifying castings, which eliminates the need for indicated dimensions on drawings and simplifies the application of tolerances



  • The alignment of the tolerance grades and values with ISO 8062-4, which covers general dimensional and geometrical tolerances for castings using geometrical tolerancing in accordance with ISO 1101



  • The addition of examples and recommendations for applying ISO 8062-3 to different types of castings, such as sand castings, investment castings, die castings, and centrifugal castings



  • The clarification of some terms and definitions, such as nominal size, envelope requirement, and datum feature



  • The update of some references and normative annexes, such as ISO/TS 8062-2, ISO 1101, and ISO 14405-1



How to apply ISO 8062-3 to castings?




The general principles and rules of ISO 8062-3




ISO 8062-3 is based on the following general principles and rules:


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The use of tolerances for indicated dimensions




If indicated dimensions are used on drawings or models to specify the nominal size or location of features on castings, they shall be given with tolerances. The tolerances shall be derived from the tolerance grades specified in ISO 8062-3. The tolerances shall not be modified by any other means, such as maximum material condition (MMC) or least material condition (LMC) modifiers.


The use of general dimensional and geometrical tolerances




If indicated dimensions are not used on drawings or models to specify the nominal size or location of features on castings, general dimensional and geometrical tolerances shall be applied. General dimensional and geometrical tolerances are tolerances that apply to all dimensions or geometry of features on castings that are not individually indicated. General dimensional and geometrical tolerances shall be specified by using the symbols and indications given in ISO 8062-3. General dimensional and geometrical tolerances shall not be combined with any other type of tolerances, such as individual or geometrical tolerances.


The use of machining allowance grades




If machining operations are required to achieve the final dimensions or geometry of features on castings, machining allowance grades shall be specified. Machining allowance grades are grades that define the minimum amount of material to be removed from the casting surface by machining operations. Machining allowance grades shall be specified by using the symbols and indications given in ISO 8062-3. Machining allowance grades shall not be confused with roughness values or surface texture symbols.


The tolerance grades and values of ISO 8062-3




ISO 8062-3 provides four types of tolerance grades for castings: dimensional casting tolerance grades (DCTG), geometrical casting tolerance grades (GCTG), surface mismatch (SMI) tolerances, and wall thickness tolerances. It also provides four types of machining allowance grades for castings: required machining allowances (RMA), minimum local thickness (MLT), minimum remaining wall thickness (MRWT), and minimum distance to a hole (MDH). The tolerance grades and values are given in tables in ISO 8062-3.


The dimensional casting tolerance grades (DCTG)




The DCTG are groups of tolerances that define the permissible deviations from nominal dimensions for linear sizes, diameters, radii, angles, chamfers, fillets, grooves, slots, holes, bosses, ribs, webs, flanges, etc. The DCTG are designated by a letter from A to G followed by a number from 1 to 18. The letter indicates the type of feature (A for linear size, B for diameter, C for radius or angle, D for chamfer or fillet, E for groove or slot, F for hole or boss, G for rib or web) and the number indicates the level of accuracy (1 being the most accurate and 18 being the least accurate). For example, DCTG B6 means a diameter tolerance grade with a level of accuracy of 6.


The DCTG values depend on the nominal size range and the casting manufacturing process. The nominal size range is divided into six categories: up to 6 mm, over 6 mm up to surface alignment between two adjacent parts of a casting that are produced in separate moulds or cores. The SMI tolerances are designated by the letter L followed by a number from 1


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